Difference between revisions of "Power Tools"

From ProtoLab Wiki
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==Saws==
 
==Saws==
 
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===Bandsaw===
 
===Bandsaw===
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:''Main Article : [[Bandsaw]]''
 
:''Main Article : [[Bandsaw]]''
 
[[File:Delta_bandsaw1.jpg|thumb|right|Delta band saw.]]
 
[[File:Delta_bandsaw1.jpg|thumb|right|Delta band saw.]]
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===Circular Saw===
 
===Circular Saw===
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[[File:circular_saw1.jpg|thumb|left|Circular saw.]]  
 
[[File:circular_saw1.jpg|thumb|left|Circular saw.]]  
  
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===Miter Saw===
 
===Miter Saw===
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[[File:Miter_saw1.jpg|thumb|right|Miter saw.]]  
 
[[File:Miter_saw1.jpg|thumb|right|Miter saw.]]  
  
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===Panel Saw===
 
===Panel Saw===
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:''Main Article : [[Panel Saw]]''
 
:''Main Article : [[Panel Saw]]''
 
[[File:Panel_saw1.jpg|thumb|left|Panel saw.]]  
 
[[File:Panel_saw1.jpg|thumb|left|Panel saw.]]  
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==Drills==
 
==Drills==
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===Drill Press===
 
===Drill Press===
  

Revision as of 21:16, 9 August 2017

OSHA 3080 defines a power tool as any tool requiring external electrical, pneumatic, or chemical power to function.

Saws


Bandsaw

Main Article : Bandsaw
Delta band saw.

A bandsaw (also written band saw) is a saw with a long, sharp blade consisting of a continuous band of toothed metal stretched between two or more wheels to cut material. Advantages include uniform cutting action as a result of an evenly distributed tooth load, and the ability to cut irregular or curved shapes like a jigsaw. Additionally since the blade is pulling the material into the table it is unlikely there will be kickback or ricochets. The minimum radius of a curve is determined by the width of the band and its kerf. Most bandsaws have two wheels rotating in the same plane, one of which is powered, although some may have three or four to distribute the load. The blade itself can come in a variety of size and tooth pitch (teeth per inch, or TPI) which enables the machine to be highly versatile and able to cut a wide variety of materials including wood, metal and plastic.


Circular Saw

Circular saw.

Instructional Video:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dpA0hYeRVmw

Safety Instructions:

1. Always wear eye protection when operating circular saws. 2. Tie up loose clothing and hair, and remove jewelry that could be pulled into the saw. Hearing protection is also recommended as saws are very loud and can lead to hearing loss. 3. Verify that the saw blade or abrasive cutting disc has a RPM rating ABOVE the saw RPM. 4. Set the saw cutting depth as shallow as possible – avoid letting the blade protrude much below the stock being cut. 5. Never set a circular saw down unless the blade has completely stopped. 6. Make adjustments and change blades only when unplugged. 7. Do not hold or force the retracting lower guard in the open position. 8. Do not place hand under the shoe or guard of the saw. 9. Do not over tighten the blade-locking nut. 10. Do not twist the saw to change, cut or check alignment. 11. Do not use a saw that vibrates or appears unsafe in any way. 12. Do not force the saw during cutting – forcing can cause kickback. 13. Do not cut materials without first checking for obstructions or other objects such as nails and screws. 14. Do not carry the saw with a finger on the trigger switch. 15. Do not overreach and make sure to keep proper footing and balance. 16. Do not rip stock without using a wedge or guide clamped or nailed to the stock. 17. Make sure the stock will not fall and “bind” the circular saw – kickback can occur.


Miter Saw

Miter saw.

Instructional Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kFs-30mFU1A

Safety Instructions:

1. Always wear eye protection when using the miter saw. 2. Use clamps to support workpiece whenever possible. If supporting the workpiece by hand, you must always keep hand outside of “No Hand” area that is marked in yellow. Never feed the workpiece into the blade or cut freehand in any way. 3. Do not use this saw to cut pieces that are too small to be securely clamped, or that require your hand be placed in the “No Hand” area near the blade. When cutting small or irregularly shaped pieces first attach the workpiece to a jig/fixture. 4. Do not reach in back of the saw blade behind the fence with either hand to hold down or support the workpiece, remove wood scraps, or for any other reason. 5. Never cross your hand over intended line of cutting. Supporting the workpiece “cross-handed” i.e. holding the left side of the workpiece with your right hand is very dangerous. 6. Always disconnect the power cord from the power source before making any adjustments or attaching any accessories. 7. Only use the miter saw to cut wood or wood-like materials. 8. Inspect your workpiece before cutting. If workpiece is bowed or warped, clamp it with the outside bowed face toward the fence. Always make certain that there is no gap between the workpiece, fence and table along the line of cut. Also, make sure there are no nails or foreign objects in the workpiece. 9. Do not use the saw until the table is clear of all tools, wood scraps, etc., except the workpiece. 10. Cut only one piece at a time. 11. Provide adequate support accessories such as tables; saw horses, table extensions, etc. for workpieces wider or longer than the table top 12. Let the blade reach full speed before contacting the workpiece. 13. If the workpiece or blade becomes jammed or bogged down, turn miter saw “OFF” by releasing the switch. 14. After finishing the cut, release the switch, hold the saw arm down and wait for blade to stop before removing work or cutoff piece. 15. Turn on the dust collection system and close all gates, except that for the miter saw


Panel Saw

Main Article : Panel Saw
Panel saw.

The panel saw is any type of circular sawing machine with a sliding table or saw blade that crosscuts sheets into sized parts. The Idea Shop panel saw is a vertical unit with a sliding saw blade. This is especially useful for cutting down large standard 4' x 8' sheets of plywood, melamine, acrylic or cardboard. The saw normally operates in the vertical cutting direction, however the blade can be rotated to rip long steps from sheet material. Many circular saw blades are available to cut a variety of materials from wood to metals. Because of guards the panel saw is a much safer alternative to the table saw for making straight cuts, especially on large stock materials. The size of the stock normally requires two poeple to load the material safely into the machine.


Drills


Drill Press

Drill press.

Drilling machines, or drill presses, are primarily used to drill or enlarge a cylindrical hole in a workpiece or part. The chief operation performed on the drill press is drilling, but other possible operations include: reaming, countersinking, counterboring, and tapping.

1. Prior to drilling a hole, locate the hole by drawing two crossing lines. Use a center punch to make an indentation for the drill point to aid the drill in starting the hole.

2. Select the proper drill bit according to the size needed.

3. Select an appropriate size center drill -if necessary.

4. Select a cutting fluid when necessary (e.g. cutting soft metals, aluminum and mild steel)

5. Properly secure the workpiece to the table.

6. Select the correct RPM for the drill bit. Take into account: size of bit, material, and depth of hole to be drilled.

7. Use an interrupted feed, called peck drilling, to break up the chips being produced.

8. Pilot holes should be used on holes larger than 3/8” dia. Holes are to be enlarged in no more than 1/4” increments.

9. Clean the drill press and surrounding area when finished.

Safety

1. No attempt should be made to operate a drill press until you are certain you understand the proper procedures for its use.

2. Dress appropriately. Remove all watches and jewelry. Safety glasses or goggles are a must.

3. Plan out your work thoroughly before starting.

4. Know the location of the OFF button.

5. Clamp all work securely to the table.

6. Always remove the chuck key immediately after using it. A key left in the chuck will be thrown out at a high velocity when the machine is turned on. Never let the chuck key leave your hand except to put it back into its holder.

7. Never stop a drill press spindle with your hand after you have turned off the machine. Chips often build up around the chuck.

8. Use a brush, not your hands, to remove chips from the machine. Do not clean up while the machine is running.

9. Remove burrs from drilled workpieces as soon as possible.

10. Keep the floor area clean. Immediately wipe up any oil spills.



Belt/Disc Sander

Manual Belt sander.

Instructional Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_H9cGyL3BoY

Safety Instructions:

1. Always wear eye protection when using a belt/disc sander.

2. Remove ties, ring, watch and other jewelry, and roll up sleeves before using the belt/disc sander.

3. Make all adjustment on the belt/disc sander with the power OFF.

4. Make sure the sand belt or disc is not torn or loose before using the sander.

5. Always hold the work firmly when sanding.

6. Always use the backstop when belt sander is in the horizontal position.

7. Always hold the work firmly on the table when sanding on the disc.

8. Never wear gloves or hold work with a rag when sanding.

9. Do not sand pieces of material that are too small to be safely supported.

10. Avoid awkward hand positions where a sudden slip could cause a hand to move into the sanding belt or disc.

11. When sanding a large work piece, provide additional support at table height.

12. Do not sand with the work piece unsupported. Support the work piece with the backstop or table. The only exception is curved work performed on the outer sanding drum.

13. Always turn the machine off and disconnect the cord from the power source before installing or removing accessories or when making repairs

14. Never leave the machine work area when the power is on or before the machine has come to a complete stop.

15. Shut off power and clean the sander and work area before leaving the area.


Bench Grinder

Bench grinder.

Instructional Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znnurySP3no Safety Instructions:

1. Always wear eye protection (safety glasses or a face shield).

2. Remove tie, rings, watch and other jewelry and roll up sleeves.

3. Make sure the wheel guards are in place. Grinding creates heat; don't touch any portion of the workpiece until you are sure it has cooled.

4. Adjust the spark guards to be close to the wheel, and re-adjust these spark guards as the wheels wear down to a smaller diameter

5. Be sure blotters and wheel flanges are used to mount the grinding wheels onto the shaft of the grinder.

6. Stand to one side of the wheel when turning on power

7. Tool rests should be adjusted close to the wheels and thoroughly tightened in place so they cannot shift position while in use

8. Inspect the wheels before turning on the power. DO NOT use wheels that have been chipped or cracked.

9. When grinding, use the face of the wheel only.

10. Dress the wheel on the face only. Dressing the side of the wheel would cause it to become too thin for safe use.

11. DO NOT use a wheel that vibrates. Dress wheel, replace the wheel, or replace the bearings of the shaft if these are worn. Grinding creates heat; don't touch ground portion of workpiece until you are sure workpiece has cooled.

12. Shut off the power and do not leave guards as the wheels wear down to a until the wheel has come to a complete stop and the work area is clean when finished using machine.

Wood Lathe

Woodworking lathe.

Safety;

1. No attempt should be made to operate the lathe until you understand the proper procedures for its use and have been checked out on it.

2. Dress appropriately. Remove all watches and jewelry. Safety glasses or goggles are a must.

3. Plan out your work thoroughly before starting.

4. Know were the location of the OFF switch is.

5. Be sure the work and holding device are firmly attached.

6. Turn the chuck by hand, with the lathe turned OFF, to be sure there is no danger of striking any part of the lathe.

7. Always remove the chuck key from the chuck immediately after use, and before operating the lathe. Make it a habit to never let go of the chuck key until it is out of the chuck and back in its holder.

8. Keep the machine clear of tools. Tools must not be placed on the ways of the lathe.

9. Stop the lathe before making any measurements, adjustments, or cleaning.

10. Support all work solidly. Do not permit small diameter work to project too far from the chuck, (over 3X’s the work’s diameter), without support.

12. If the work must be repositioned or removed from the lathe. Move the cutting tool clear of the work to prevent any accidental injuries.

13. You should always be aware of the direction of travel and speed of the carriage before you engage the automatic feed.

14. Chips are sharp. Do not attempt to remove them with your hand when they become “stringy” and build up on the tool post or workpiece. Stop the machine and remove them with pliers.

15. Stop the lathe immediately if any odd noise or vibration develops while you are operating it. If you can not locate the source of the trouble, get help from the instructor. Under no circumstance should the lathe be operated until the problem has been corrected.

16. Remove sharp edges and burrs from the work before removing it from the lathe.

17. Use care when cleaning the lathe. Chips sometimes get caught in recesses. Remove them with a brush or short stick. Never use a floor brush to clean the machine. Use only a brush, compressed air, or a rag