Difference between revisions of "Plastics"

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“Thermoplastic” (as opposed to “thermoset”) has to do with the way the material responds to heat. Thermoplastics become liquid (i.e. have a “glass transition”) at a certain temperature. They can be heated to their melting point, cooled, and re-heated again without significant degradation. Instead of burning, thermoplastics (like ABS ) liquefy which allows them to be easily injection molded and then subsequently recycled.
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==ABS==
 
 
By contrast, ''thermoset'' plastics are fixed, and can only be heated once (typically during the injection molding process). Only upon contact with a special chemical (catalyst) or heat will it polymerize (set), resulting in a chemical change that cannot be reversed (attempting to reheat a thermoset plastic to a high temperature a second time would burn the plastic). This characteristic makes thermoset materials poor candidates for recycling. Examples of thermoset plastics include epoxy resins and silicones.
 
 
 
 
 
===Acrylic===
 
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[[File:Acrylic.jpg|thumb|right|Acrylic Samples]]
 
 
 
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also commonly known as acrylic (Plexiglass and Acylite are all brand name acrylics) is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. '''The Idea Shop stocks acrylic in following thickness and respective colors<nowiki>:</nowiki>'''
 
 
 
;0.0625" (1.5mm) Acrylic
 
:white, <span style="color:#000"> black</span>
 
;0.125" (3mm) Acrylic<nowiki>:</nowiki>
 
:<span style="color:#FF0000"> opaque red</span>, clear,  <span style="color:#33CC99"> glass tint </span>, <span style="color:#FFA500"> orange</span>, white, <span style="color:#000"> black</span>, <span style="color:#999999"> opaque grey</span>
 
;0.25" (6mm) Acrylic 
 
:clear, white, <span style="color:#000"> black</span>
 
 
 
Acrylic can be used in many different ways and can be formed into different shapes and sizes. Here in the Idea Shop, the [[Panel Saw|panel saw]], [[Table Saw|table saw]], [[Bandsaw|band saw]], as well as the [[Epilog Laser|laser cutter]], can all be used to cut acrylic. We also have a [[Line Bender|line bender]] for folding and curving sheets of acrylic.
 
 
 
====Lasers + Acrylic = A match made in heaven====
 
The best option for cutting acrylic is the [[Epilog Laser|laser cutter]]. As a side effect of laser cutting is immense heat, the heat leaves acrylic with a polished edge, highly suitable for adhering. Using the laser to cut acrylic offers the best surface finish possible for the edges.
 
 
 
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===ABS===
 
 
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[[File:BlackABSsheet.jpg|thumb|left|Black ABS sheet]]
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<div class="col-lg-4 col-md-5 col-sm-6 col-xs-12">[[File:BlackABSsheet.jpg|thumb|left|Black ABS sheet]]</div>
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<div class="col-lg-8 col-md-7 col-sm-6 col-xs-12">
  
 
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) is an opaque thermoplastic and amorphous polymer. The glass transition temperature of ABS is approximately 105 °C (221 °F).
 
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) is an opaque thermoplastic and amorphous polymer. The glass transition temperature of ABS is approximately 105 °C (221 °F).
  
ABS has a strong resistance to corrosive chemicals and/or physical impacts. It is very easy to machine and has a low melting temperature making it particularly simple to use in injection molding manufacturing processes or 3D printing on an FDM machine (note: none of the 3D printers in the Idea Shop use ABS filament).
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ABS has a strong resistance to corrosive chemicals and/or physical impacts. It is very easy to machine and has a low melting temperature making it particularly simple to use in injection molding manufacturing processes or 3D printing on an FDM machine.
  
 
*ABS is well suited for use on the [[Vacuum Former|vacuum former]].
 
*ABS is well suited for use on the [[Vacuum Former|vacuum former]].
*ABS is prohibited on the laser cutter. Consider using the [[CNC Milling|CNC]] instead
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*ABS is well suited for use on the [[Line Bender|line bender]].
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*'''ABS is prohibited on the laser cutter.''' Consider using the [[CNC Milling|CNC]] instead
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</div>
 
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===PETG===
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==PETG==
 
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<div class="col-lg-4 col-md-5 col-sm-6 col-xs-12">[[File:PETG.jpg|thumb|left|PETG in sheet form]]</div>
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<div class="col-lg-8 col-md-7 col-sm-6 col-xs-12">
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PETG is a clear amorphous thermoplastic that can be injection molded, sheet extruded or extruded as filament for 3D printing. Clear PETG sheets are a good alternative to acrylic, as PETG it is more flexible and less brittle than acrylic and less prone to shattering.
 
PETG is a clear amorphous thermoplastic that can be injection molded, sheet extruded or extruded as filament for 3D printing. Clear PETG sheets are a good alternative to acrylic, as PETG it is more flexible and less brittle than acrylic and less prone to shattering.
  
 
*PETG is well suited for use on the [[Vacuum Former|vacuum former]].
 
*PETG is well suited for use on the [[Vacuum Former|vacuum former]].
*PETG is prohibited on the laser cutter.  
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*PETG is well suited for use on the [[Line Bender|line bender]].
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*'''PETG is prohibited on the laser cutter.'''
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</div>
 
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===HIPS===
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==PS==
 
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High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) is a thermoplastic polymer and can be solid or foamed. The glass transition temperature of PS is approximately 100 °C (212 °F). HIPS is available in FDA approved grades and is compatible with food packaging applications.  
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Polystyrene (PS) is a thermoplastic polymer and can be solid or foamed. The glass transition temperature of PS is approximately 100 °C (212 °F). PS is available in FDA approved grades and is compatible with food packaging applications.  
  
*HIPS is well suited for use on the [[Vacuum Former|vacuum former]].
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*PS is well suited for use on the [[Vacuum Former|vacuum former]].
*HIPS is prohibited on the laser cutter. Consider using the [[CNC Milling|CNC]] instead
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*PS is well suited for use on the [[Line Bender|line bender]].
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*'''PS is prohibited on the laser cutter.''' Consider using the [[CNC Milling|CNC]] instead
 
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===PVC===
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==PVC==
 
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<center><span style="color:red">'''WARNING: When melted, PVC gives off toxic fumes. PVC is prohibited in any process that involves heat, including laser cutting and vacuum forming.'''</span></center>
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<div class="col-lg-4 col-md-5 col-sm-6 col-xs-12">[[File:PVC-sheet.jpg|thumb|left|PVC in sheet form]]</div>
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<div class="col-lg-8 col-md-7 col-sm-6 col-xs-12">
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Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a white thermoplastic that can be rigid or flexible. It is mostly used in construction as pipes for plumbing, siding for houses, electrical insulation, and flooring. The melting temperature is anywhere between 100-260 °C (212 - 500°F) depending on the formula used.
  
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*'''PVC is prohibited on the laser cutter.''' Consider using the [[CNC Milling|CNC]] instead. When using the CNC, watch the wear and tear on the endmill and make sure the PVC doesn't heat up too much, PVC can be extremely damaging to tools that aren't stainless steel.
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</div>
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==Adhesion==
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==Acetal Resin==
 
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'''Note: always wear surgical gloves before working with acrylic solvent. It is also highly flammable.'''
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Acetal Resin is a type of thermoplastic, among the strongest and stiffest thermoplastics. It is also known as polyoxymethylene (POM).
Acrylic solvent is low viscosity transparent fluid that will bond and dissolve two sections of acrylic permanently. Acrylic solvent is not an adhesive; rather, the solvent softens the acrylic, and allows the molecules from each piece to intertwine and fuse together into one piece.
 
  
The video below offers a great introduction to using acrylic solvent.
 
  
{{#widget:YouTube
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==PE==
|id = hT6Ow_cBTps
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|width=800
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==PP==
|height=500
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}}
 
 
 
'''Helpful Tips'''
 
*The two bonding pieces must be held securely together. Consider using clamps or a jig.
 
*In a situation where there is excess solvent on the bonding surface, '''do not attempt to wipe up the solvent''', as it will leave a cloudy smudge. Instead, allow the solvent to evaporate.
 
*Allow a minimum of 24 hours for the solvent to cure before exerting load on it. Use of excess acrylic solvent may leave a frosty texture around the bonding surfaces.
 

Latest revision as of 18:19, 22 April 2020

ABS


Black ABS sheet

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) is an opaque thermoplastic and amorphous polymer. The glass transition temperature of ABS is approximately 105 °C (221 °F).

ABS has a strong resistance to corrosive chemicals and/or physical impacts. It is very easy to machine and has a low melting temperature making it particularly simple to use in injection molding manufacturing processes or 3D printing on an FDM machine.

  • ABS is well suited for use on the vacuum former.
  • ABS is well suited for use on the line bender.
  • ABS is prohibited on the laser cutter. Consider using the CNC instead


PETG


PETG in sheet form

PETG is a clear amorphous thermoplastic that can be injection molded, sheet extruded or extruded as filament for 3D printing. Clear PETG sheets are a good alternative to acrylic, as PETG it is more flexible and less brittle than acrylic and less prone to shattering.

  • PETG is well suited for use on the vacuum former.
  • PETG is well suited for use on the line bender.
  • PETG is prohibited on the laser cutter.


PS


Polystyrene (PS) is a thermoplastic polymer and can be solid or foamed. The glass transition temperature of PS is approximately 100 °C (212 °F). PS is available in FDA approved grades and is compatible with food packaging applications.

  • PS is well suited for use on the vacuum former.
  • PS is well suited for use on the line bender.
  • PS is prohibited on the laser cutter. Consider using the CNC instead


PVC


WARNING: When melted, PVC gives off toxic fumes. PVC is prohibited in any process that involves heat, including laser cutting and vacuum forming.


PVC in sheet form

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a white thermoplastic that can be rigid or flexible. It is mostly used in construction as pipes for plumbing, siding for houses, electrical insulation, and flooring. The melting temperature is anywhere between 100-260 °C (212 - 500°F) depending on the formula used.

  • PVC is prohibited on the laser cutter. Consider using the CNC instead. When using the CNC, watch the wear and tear on the endmill and make sure the PVC doesn't heat up too much, PVC can be extremely damaging to tools that aren't stainless steel.


Acetal Resin


Acetal Resin is a type of thermoplastic, among the strongest and stiffest thermoplastics. It is also known as polyoxymethylene (POM).


PE


PP