Communication Protocols

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This page will give the reader a fundamental foundation of different widely used digital communication protocols. There is are many difference with analog and digital signals, but fundamentally are the same. The introduction talks about both types through the analogy given so understanding they are the same in this context will be very helpful.

Introduction

Transmitting information has been around longer than humankind can recall. Transmitting information can be done in an infinite number of ways. But with any kind of transmission of information, there are some fundamental building blocks. These building blocks can be seen in the diagram. BatteryComparison.jpg This is extremely basic and more systems can have more complex designs in the communication process. Furthermore, in the case of two Indian speaking humans communicating verbally, this diagram stands. When one individual wants to speak, the data needs to be converted. This way of conversion matters on two factors, the data median and the common language. The communication data must first be converted in the common language (Hindi) and then transmitted (verbally). The data median is air so this is why it must be verbally transmitted. Then the receiver must receive the data then decode it, then interpret what the data means. Now then data being transmitted verbally is in an analog pattern. This analog pattern is extremely complex and this is why large amounts of data can be transmitted human to human in just a single word. The picture below shows the pressure wave of a human saying a word. BatteryComparison.jpg In digital, the signal is either on or off. Or in vocal communication, it is either the person is yelling at the top of their lungs, or they are not. The communication graph would look like this. BatteryComparison.jpg From all of these on and off states, a system can begin decoding the data. A common encoding and decoding protocol to use is the ASCII protocol. This protocol represents english letters as a 7 digit string of 1s and 0s. This can be the same as just writing a regular number but with binary, it must be as 1s(on) and 0s(off). These ones and zeros are called bits. The letter ‘B’ would be represented as 1000001. Once this concept is fully understood, learning any communication protocol will be much easier. BatteryComparison.jpg